5 Words Making Headlines That Every Security Enthusiast Needs Know:

Wednesday, 14 October 2015 1989 Views 0 Comments

Nuclear treaty

Also known as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty / Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT) was signed in July 1st 1968 and entered into force on 5th March 1970. The original treaty was to last 25 years after coming into force after which a conference was to be held to determine if the extension would be in order. It was this in mind that a conference was held in 1995 to extend the treaty indefinitely. Subsequent conferences have since been held to review the treaty in 2000 and 2005. The treaty therefore gives provisions for any country bound by it to withdraw is it feels that its “supreme interests” are being jeopardized; North Korea has taken advantage of this clause and it withdrew from the treaty in 2003.

Non-nuclear-weapon States Parties undertake not to acquire or produce nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices. They are required also to accept safeguards to detect diversions of nuclear materials from peaceful activities, such as power generation, to the production of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. This must be done in accordance with an individual safeguards agreement, concluded between each non-nuclear-weapon State Party and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

The treaty recognizes the following members of the UNSC such as the United States, United Kingdom, Russia, France and China. It also includes the following 4 states believed to have the ability to produce nuclear weapons such as India, Pakistan Israel and North Korea.


Date NPT first effective (including USSR, YU, and CS of that time)
     1st decade: ratified or acceded 1968-1977
     2nd decade: ratified or acceded 1978-1987
     3rd decade: ratified or acceded since 1988
     never signed (India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Sudan)


Nuclear Weapons

A bomb or missile that uses nuclear energy to cause an explosion. There are two types of nuclear weapons. The first is the fission reaction in which a heavy molecule (either Uranium-235 or Plutonium-239) splits into neutrons which sets out a chain of reactions that release a sequence of energy for a slight moment. The second is fusion reaction in which two lighter molecules are combined to produce a heavier one. Nuclear weapons which make use of fission reactions are also known as atomic bombs while those that combine both fission-fusion reactions are known as thermonuclear /hydrogen bombs. Together with biological bombs and chemical bombs they are known as Weapons of Mass Destruction.


Suicide Terrorist

Gaining popularity with the recent attacks in Cameroon piling up the cases of its caliber. This is a form of terrorism where the terrorist deliberately kills him or herself in the process of carrying out his or her attack.



The Islamic State of Iraq And Levant has become known as the most influential movement after the al-Qaeda the last ‘S’ is known to mean Al-sham which means Levant. Isis now controls a great stretch of territory in western Iraq and eastern Syria, making it militarily the most successful jihadi movement ever.

Although the exact number of followers and recruits is unknown it is known to have successfully managed to gunner a global movement using means such as radicalization to get more followers especially the youth.

Led since 2010 by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, also known as Abu Dua, it has proved itself even more violent and sectarian than what US officials call the “core” al-Qaeda, led by Ayman al-Zawahiri, who is based in Pakistan. Isis is highly fanatical, killing Shia Muslims and Christians whenever possible, as well as militarily efficient and under tight direction by top leaders.

The creation of a sort of proto-Caliphate by extreme jihadist in northern Syria and Iraq is provoking fears in surrounding countries such as Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Turkey that they will become targets of battle-hardened Sunni fighters.

Isis specializes in using militarily untrained foreign volunteers as suicide bombers either moving on foot wearing suicide vests, or driving vehicles packed with explosives.


War on Terror

Also Known as the Global War on Terror (GWOT) started after the events that occurred in September 11th 2001 declared by the then president George W. Bush and his administration. The parameters of GWOT are ill- defined and if narrowly interpreted can be seen as an attack against Islamic extremists but widely interpreted as waging war against  terrorism of every sort. The Government f the United States has also put a provision within GWOT that prevents rogue states from providing safe havens or weapons of mass destruction to terrorist organizations as well as a provision that campaigns for the promotion of democracy in the Middle East.


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